Savage leaky programs

It’s come to my attention recently that despite a fresh install of Linux Mint, certain programs seem to leak like a basket and hang around after they’re closed too.

I’d noticed my machine freezing intermittently and adding the memory monitor panel item revealed that the system memory was filling up.

The blue mem bar fills up over time when Brave is left open. Disappointing for such an otherwise excellent Web Browser.

xreader and brave seemed to be the main culprits but since rebuilding my desktop machine, I’ve not been using many other programs apart from ledger live to track the value of my crypto currency portfolio while the fed prints money ad infinitum during the coronavirus pandemic. I digress.

Killing processes gets old really quick, so I wrote a quick’n’dirty little shell script to do it for me. Rather than killing individual processes, it savages all processes by the same name.

I shall call it and share it with the world, right here. Not on github.

Killing all running processes for ledger and brave using
# finds all process ID's for the specified program running under your own user account and kills them
# in order to free up system resources.  Some programs have severe memory leaks and consume vast amount of RAM and 
# swap if left running over time.
# Usage: 
# Written by M. D. Bradley during Coronavirus pandemic, March 2020

memfree=`free | grep Mem | awk {'print $4'}`
echo "Program to kill e.g. xreader?: "
read program
pidcount=`ps -fu $user | grep $program | awk {'print$program'} | wc -l`
ps -fu $user | grep $program | awk {'print$2'} | while read eachpid; do 
	kill $eachpid >/dev/null 2>&1
memfree2=`free | grep Mem | awk {'print $4'}`
freedmem=$(( memfree2 - memfree ))
if [ $pidcount -eq 1 ] 
	echo "Found $pidcount process running for $program"
	echo "Killed it.  Freed up $freedmem bytes."
if [ $pidcount -gt 1 ] 
	echo "Found $pidcount processes running for $program"
	echo "Savaged them. Freed up $freedmem bytes."

git Cheat Sheet

My super concise git notes

Developed by Linus Torvalds, git is a…

  1. Distributed Version Control System (VCS) for any type of file
  2. Co-ordinates work between multiple developers
  3. Tracks who made what changes and when
  4. Revert back at any time
  5. Supports local and remote repositories (hosted on github, bitbucket)

It keeps track of code history and takes snapshots of your files
You decide when to take a snapshot by making a commit
You can visit any snapshot at any time
You can stage files before committing

sudo apt-get install git (debian)
sudo yum install git (red hat) (installers for mac and windows)
gitbash is a linux-like command cli for windows

git config –global ‘matt bradley’
git config –global ‘’
touch .gitignore
echo “log.txt” >> .gitignore
Add file to be ignored by git, e.g. log file generated by script
echo “/log” >> .gitignore Add directory to be ignored, e.g. log directory

BASIC COMMANDS (local repository)
git init Initialize a local git repository (creates a hidden .git subdirectory in the directory)
git add Adds file(s) to Index and Staging area ready for commit.
git add . Adds all files in directory to Staging area
git status check status of working tree, show files in Staging area and any untracked files you still need to add
git commit commit changes in index – takes files in staging are and puts them in local repository
git commit -m ‘my comment’ Skips git editing stage adding comment from command.
git rm –cached removes from staging area (untracked/unstaged).

BASIC COMMANDS (remote repo)
git push push files to remote repository
git pull pull latest version from remote repo
git clone clone repo into a local directory

git clone clones my cyberfella repository

git –version shows version of git installed

git branch loginarea creates a branch from master called “loginarea”
git checkout loginarea switches to the “loginarea” branch
git checkout master switches back to the master branch version
git merge ‘loginarea’ merges changes made to ‘loginarea’ files in loginarea branch to master branch

Create a public or private repository
Shows the commands required to create a new repository on the command line or push an existing repository from the command line
A (markdown format) file displays nicely in github.


This is my app

Basically it should look like this in github


This is my app


atom is a very nice, simple text editor for programmers that supports integration with git.


Make bootable USB from .iso in Linux

The following command will write a downloaded .iso file of your favourite distro to a USB stick.  You can then boot off it and install to hardware.

sudo dd bs=4M if=./manjaro-xfce-18.0-stable-x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdb status=progress

Note that in my example, there was no partition on the usb stick to start with.  I’d removed it using gparted (not necessary though).Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail


One of my first ever posts was about conky and wbar on crunchbang linux.

Crunchbang has since been replaced with a community led fork, Bunsenlabs, and it’s well worth checking out.  I’m so impressed with it that it’s my laptop OS of choice, giving me very little grief installing onto my disappointingly-not-particularly-linux-friendly Dell XPS 15, unlike other popular distros.  Suffice to say, Bunsenlabs has saved my XPS15 from the financial damage limitation exercise known as ebay.

In any case, I thought I’d include a link to my own .conkyrc file.  It’s simple and neat, nothing too fancy.

The download file is called conkyrc.  Once downloaded, just rename it to .conkyrc i.e. put the dot in front (hidden file and the conky default), and copy it to your home directory, remembering to back up any existing .conkyrc file already in your home directory first.

If you want to edit yours to make it your own, the man page for conky is very good, but I find this better.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Linux disk space consumption analysis.

Desktop distro’s have wonderful graphical disk space analysis programs such as Baobab (KDirStat), QDirStat, xdiskusage, duc, JDiskReport and with your desktop distro being connected to the internet, even if you dont already have them installed, installing them from your repositories is easy.   You can quickly drill down using these treemapper programs and find the culprit for filling your disk up.

In the datacentre, things are never so easy.  You have no internet access, and no local repository configured, and even if you did, you have no change control to install it on a live system, and even if you did, no GUI to view it. All you have is a production problem, a stressed out ops manager and a flashing cursor winking at you -oh and native tools.

Sure, you can use the find command to go looking for files over a certain size,

find ./ -type f -size +1000000M -exec ls -al {} \;

removing a zero and re-running as required until it starts finding something, but you’ll fight with the find command syntax for 15 minutes trying to get it to work, only to be unconvinced of the results.  As good as find is, it’s not exactly easy trying to put together a command that does something that should be simple.

Here is a much simpler solution.  Just use du.  In particular…

du -h –max-depth=1

This will summarize the size of the top level sub-directories underneath your present working directory.  You then cd in to the biggest one, run it again and repeat until you basically end up digging down and arriving at the largest file on disk – in my case a 32GB mysql database in /var/lib/mysql/zabbix.

So there you go.  Have a play with it and you’ll see what I mean.  It’s my favourite way of finding out what’s eating all my disk space.Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Simplify linux find command using shell functions

Do you need to find a file and then perform some action on it and get caught up in curly brackets, back slashes and syntax errors when you could swear “this command worked in the past?”.  It’s one of the joys of Linux I guess, but quickly becomes tedious when you’re working against a problem and are under stress.

Here is a reference find command that works.  I hope it helps.  It’ll no doubt help me at some point (the entire purpose of my blog is to actually remind myself how to do half of this stuff from time to time).

sudo find ./ -name *.mkv -exec ls {} \;

Something I like to do is create shell functions in the .bashrc file in your home directory to simplify commonly used commands that are long to type and quite syntax sensitive.

f() { find . -name “*$1*”; }

This is a nice useful one that can be used to find any files that have the specified string anywhere in the filename.  Just type f All  to find any files with the word All occurring anywhere in the filename.

You could create other versions such as this one, that will find and remove files with a specified string in the filename – but I’d really not recommend it.

fr() { find ./ -name “*$1*” -exec rm {} \; }

Be sure to run man fr first to check that your shell function name isn’t the name of an existing binary on the system!Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Dropbox alternative for Linux users

With the recent announcement that Dropbox is dropping its support for linux filesystems (other than ext4) in November, you’ll no doubt be searching for an alternative cloud storage provider that supports linux file system synchronisation.

Look no further than MEGA.

50GB for free, local filesystem synchronisation, download and retain your own private key,  a great, easy to use web browser client.

File system sync client:

Bare metal DR and Linux Migration with Relax and Recover (rear)


In short, Relax and Recover (rear) is a tool that creates .tar.gz images of the running server and creates bootable rescue media as .iso images

Relax and Recover (ReaR) generates an appropriate rescue image from a running system and also acts as a migration tool for Physical to Virtual or Virtual to Virtual migrations of running linux hosts.

It is not per se, a file level backup tool.  It is akin to Clonezilla – another popular bare metal backup tool also used to migrate Linux into virtual environments.

There are two main commands, rear mkbackuponly and rear mkrescue to create the backup archive and the bootable image respectively.  They can be combined in the single command rear mkbackup.

The bootable iso provides a configured bootable rescue environment that, provided your backup is configured correctly in /etc/rear/local.conf, will make recovery as simple as typing rear recover from the recovery prompt.

You can back up to NFS or CIFS Share or to a USB block storage device pre-formatted by running rear format /dev/sdX


A professional recovery system is much more than a simple backup tool.
Experienced admins know they must control and test the entire workflow for the recovery process in advance, so they are certain all the pieces will fall into place in case of an emergency.
Versatile replacement hardware must be readily available, and you might not have the luxury of using a replacement system that exactly matches the original.
The partition layout or the configuration of a RAID system must correspond.
If the crashed system’s patch level was not up to date, or if the system contained an abundance of manually installed software, problems are likely to occur with drivers, configuration settings, and other compatibility issues.
Relax and Recover (ReaR) is a true disaster recovery solution that creates recovery media from a running Linux system.
If a hardware component fails, an administrator can boot the standby system with the ReaR rescue media and put the system back to its previous state.
ReaR preserves the partitioning and formatting of the hard disk, the restoration of all data, and the boot loader configuration.

ReaR is well suited as a migration tool, because the restoration does not have to take place on the same hardware as the original.
ReaR builds the rescue medium with all existing drivers, and the restored system adjusts automatically to the changed hardware.
ReaR even detects changed network cards, as well as different storage scenarios with their respective drivers (migrating IDE to SATA or SATA to CCISS) and modified disk layouts.
The ReaR documentation provides a number of mapping files and examples.
An initial full backup of the protected system is the foundation.
ReaR works in collaboration with many backup solutions, including Bacula/Bareos SEP SESAM, Tivoli Storage Manager, HP Data Protector, Symantec NetBackup, CommVault Galaxy, and EMC Legato/Networker.


Below is a working example of rear in action, performed on fresh Centos VM’s running on VirtualBox in my own lab environment.

Note: This example uses a Centos 7 server and a NFS Server on the same network subnet.

Add EPEL repository
yum install wget
rpm -ivh epel-release-7-0.2.noarch.rpm
yum install rear

On the CentOS machine
Add the following lines to /etc/rear/local.conf:
BACKUP_PROG_EXCLUDE=( ‘/tmp/*’ ‘/dev/shm/*’ )

Now make a backup
[root@centos7 ~]# rear mkbackup -v
Relax-and-Recover 1.16.1 / Git
Using log file: /var/log/rear/rear-centos7.log
mkdir: created directory ‘/var/lib/rear/output’
Creating disk layout
Creating root filesystem layout
TIP: To login as root via ssh you need to set up /root/.ssh/authorized_keys or SSH_ROOT_PASSWORD in your configuration file
Copying files and directories
Copying binaries and libraries
Copying kernel modules
Creating initramfs
Making ISO image
Wrote ISO image: /var/lib/rear/output/rear-centos7.iso (90M)
Copying resulting files to nfs location
Encrypting disabled
Creating tar archive ‘/tmp/rear.QnDt1Ehk25Vqurp/outputfs/centos7/2014-08-21-1548-F.tar.gz’
Archived 406 MiB [avg 3753 KiB/sec]OK
Archived 406 MiB in 112 seconds [avg 3720 KiB/sec]

Now look on your NFS server
You’ll see all the files you’ll need to perform the disaster recovery.
total 499M
drwxr-x— 2 root root 4.0K Aug 21 23:51 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K Aug 21 23:48 ..
-rw——- 1 root root 407M Aug 21 23:51 2014-08-21-1548-F.tar.gz
-rw——- 1 root root 2.2M Aug 21 23:51 backup.log
-rw——- 1 root root 202 Aug 21 23:49 README
-rw——- 1 root root 90M Aug 21 23:49 rear-centos7.iso
-rw——- 1 root root 161K Aug 21 23:49 rear.log
-rw——- 1 root root 0 Aug 21 23:51 selinux.autorelabel
-rw——- 1 root root 277 Aug 21 23:49 VERSION

ReaR is not a file level Recovery tool (Look at fwbackups) however, you can perform incremental backups, in fact, in the “BACKUP_TYPE=incremental” parameter which takes care of that.
As you can see from the file list above, it shows the letter “F” before the .tar.gz extension which is an indication that this is a full backup.
Actually it’s better to make the rescue ISO seperately from the backup.
The command “rear mkbackup -v” makes both the bootstrap ISO and the backup itself, but running “rear mkbackup -v” twice won’t create incremental backups for some reason.

So first:
[root@centos7 ~]# time rear mkrescue -v
Relax-and-Recover 1.16.1 / Git
Using log file: /var/log/rear/rear-centos7.log
Creating disk layout
Creating root filesystem layout
TIP: To login as root via ssh you need to set up /root/.ssh/authorized_keys or SSH_ROOT_PASSWORD in your configuration file
Copying files and directories
Copying binaries and libraries
Copying kernel modules
Creating initramfs
Making ISO image
Wrote ISO image: /var/lib/rear/output/rear-centos7.iso (90M)
Copying resulting files to nfs location

real 0m49.055s
user 0m15.669s
sys 0m10.043s

And then:
[root@centos7 ~]# time rear mkbackuponly -v
Relax-and-Recover 1.16.1 / Git
Using log file: /var/log/rear/rear-centos7.log
Creating disk layout
Encrypting disabled
Creating tar archive ‘/tmp/rear.fXJJ3VYpHJa9Za9/outputfs/centos7/2014-08-21-1605-F.tar.gz’
Archived 406 MiB [avg 4166 KiB/sec]OK
Archived 406 MiB in 101 seconds [avg 4125 KiB/sec]

real 1m44.455s
user 0m56.089s
sys 0m16.967s

Run again (for incrementals)
[root@centos7 ~]# time rear mkbackuponly -v
Relax-and-Recover 1.16.1 / Git
Using log file: /var/log/rear/rear-centos7.log
Creating disk layout
Encrypting disabled
Creating tar archive ‘/tmp/rear.Tk9tiafmLyTvKFm/outputfs/centos7/2014-08-21-1608-I.tar.gz’
Archived 85 MiB [avg 2085 KiB/sec]OK
Archived 85 MiB in 43 seconds [avg 2036 KiB/sec]

real 0m49.106s
user 0m10.852s
sys 0m3.822s

Now look again at those backup files: -F.tar.gz is the Full Backup, -I.tar.gz is the Incremental. There’s also basebackup.txt and timestamp.txt files.
total 585M
drwxr-x— 2 root root 4.0K Aug 22 00:09 .
drwxr-xr-x 3 root root 4.0K Aug 22 00:04 ..
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 407M Aug 22 00:07 2014-08-21-1605-F.tar.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 86M Aug 22 00:09 2014-08-21-1608-I.tar.gz
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 2.6M Aug 22 00:09 backup.log
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 25 Aug 22 00:05 basebackup.txt
-rw——- 1 root root 202 Aug 22 00:05 README
-rw——- 1 root root 90M Aug 22 00:05 rear-centos7.iso
-rw——- 1 root root 161K Aug 22 00:05 rear.log
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 0 Aug 22 00:09 selinux.autorelabel
-rw-r–r– 1 root root 11 Aug 22 00:05 timestamp.txt
-rw——- 1 root root 277 Aug 22 00:05 VERSION

ReaR is designed to create bootable .iso, making recovery very easy and flexible in terms of options. .iso files can be booted from CD/DVD optical media, USB Block Storage Devices & Hard disks and also in VMWare & Virtual Box.
To recover a system, you first need to boot to the .ISO that was created with the backup.
You may use your favorite method for booting to the .ISO whether it’s creating a bootable USB sick, burning it to a CD, mounting it in iDRAC, etc.
Just boot to it on the server in which you want to restore to.
When the recovery screen loads, select the top option to recover.
Type root to log in.
To start recovery, type
rear -v recover

# Create missing directory:
mkdir /run/rpcbind

# Manually start networking:
chmod a+x /etc/scripts/system-setup.d/

# Navigate to and list files in /var/lib/rear/layout/xfs
# Edit each file ending in .xfs with vi and remove “sunit=0 blks” from the “log” section.
# In my case, the following files, then save them:
vi /var/lib/rear/layout/xfs/fedora_serv–build-root.xfs
vi /var/lib/rear/layout/xfs/sda1.xfs
vi /var/lib/rear/layout/xfs/sdb2.xfs

# Run the following commands to get a list of LVs and VGs:

# Run the following commands to remove the above listed LVs and VGs:

# Now run recovery again:
rear recover

ReaR Project Page:
ReaR on Github:
ReaR in OpenSuse:
YaST Module for Suse:
ReaR User Guide:
SEP-SESAM Support:
ReaR1.15 Release Notes:Facebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Linux Containers with LXC/LXD

Unlike VMWare/Virtualbox virtualisation, containers wraps up individual workloads (instead of the entire OS and kernel) and their dependencies into relatively tiny containers (or “jails” if youre talking FreeNAS/AIX, or “zones” if you’re talking Solaris, “snaps” if you’re talking Ubuntu Core).  There are many solutions to linux containerisation in the marketplace at present, and LXC is free.

This post serves as a go-to reference page for examples of all the most commonly used lxc commands when dealing with linux containers.  I highly recommend completing all the sections below, running all the commands on the test server available at, to fully appreciate the context of what you are doing.  This post is a work in progress and will likely be augmented over time with examples from my own lab, time permitting.

Your first container

LXD is image based, however by default no images are loaded into the image store as can be seen with:

lxc image list

LXD knows about 3 default image servers:

ubuntu: (for Ubuntu stable images)
ubuntu-daily: (for Ubuntu daily images)
images: (for a bunch of other distributions)

The stable Ubuntu images can be listed with:

lxc image list ubuntu: | less

To launch a first container called “first” using the Ubuntu 16.04 image, use:

lxc launch ubuntu:16.04 first

Your new container will now be visible in:

lxc list

Running state details and configuration can be queried with:

lxc info first
lxc config show first


Limiting resources

By default your container comes with no resource limitation and inherits from its parent environment. You can confirm it with:

free -m
lxc exec first — free -m

To apply a memory limit to your container, do:

lxc config set first limits.memory 128MB

And confirm that it’s been applied with:

lxc exec first — free -m



LXD supports snapshoting and restoring container snapshots.
Before making a snapshot, lets do some changes to the container, for example, updating it:

lxc exec first — apt-get update
lxc exec first — apt-get dist-upgrade -y
lxc exec first — apt-get autoremove –purge -y

Now that the container is all updated and cleaned, let’s make a snapshot called “clean”:

lxc snapshot first clean

Let’s break our container:

lxc exec first — rm -Rf /etc /usr

Confirm the breakage with (then exit):

lxc exec first — bash

And restore everything to the snapshotted state: (be sure to execute these from the container host, not from inside the container or it won’t work.

lxc restore first clean

And confirm everything’s back to normal (then exit):

lxc exec first — bash


Creating images

As your probably noticed earlier, LXD is image based, that is, all containers must be created from either a copy of an existing container or from an image.

You can create new images from an existing container or a container snapshot.

To publish our “clean” snapshot from earlier as a new image with a user friendly alias of “clean-ubuntu”, run:

lxc publish first/clean –alias clean-ubuntu

At which point we won’t need our “first” container, so just delete it with:

lxc stop first
lxc delete first

And lastly we can start a new container from our image with:

lxc launch clean-ubuntu second


Accessing files from the container

To pull a file from the container you can use the “lxc file pull” command:

lxc file pull second/etc/hosts .

Let’s add an entry to it:

echo “ my-example” >> hosts

And push it back where it came from:

lxc file push hosts second/etc/hosts

You can also use this mechanism to access log files:

lxc file pull second/var/log/syslog – | less

We won’t be needing that container anymore, so stop and delete it with:

lxc delete –force second


Use a remote image server

The lxc client tool supports multiple “remotes”, those remotes can be read-only image servers or other LXD hosts.

LXC upstream runs one such server at which serves a set of automatically generated images for various Linux distributions.

It comes pre-added with default LXD but you can remove it or change it if you don’t want it.

You can list the available images with:

lxc image list images: | less

And spawn a new Centos 7 container with:

lxc launch images:centos/7 third

Confirm it’s indeed Centos 7 with:

lxc exec third — cat /etc/redhat-release

And delete it:

lxc delete -f third

The list of all configured remotes can be obtained with:

lxc remote list


Interact with remote LXD servers

For this step, you’ll need a second demo session, so open a new one here

Copy/paste the “lxc remote add” command from the top of the page of that new session into the shell of your old session.
Then confirm the server fingerprint for the remote server.

Note that it may take a few seconds for the new LXD daemon to listen to the network, just retry the command until it answers.

At this point you can list the remote containers with:

lxc list tryit:

And its images with:

lxc image list tryit:

Now, let’s start a new container on the remote LXD using the local image we created earlier.

lxc launch clean-ubuntu tryit:fourth

You now have a container called “fourth” running on the remote host “tryit”. You can spawn a shell inside it with (then exit):

lxc exec tryit:fourth bash

Now let’s copy that container into a new one called “fifth”:

lxc copy tryit:fourth tryit:fifth

And just for fun, move it back to our local lxd while renaming it to “sixth”:

lxc move tryit:fifth sixth

And confirm it’s all still working (then exit):

lxc start sixth
lxc exec sixth — bash

Then clean everything up:

lxc delete -f sixth
lxc delete -f tryit:fourth
lxc image delete clean-ubuntuFacebooktwitterredditpinterestlinkedinmail

Rapid VM Deployment using Vagrant

I need a VM and I need it asap.

Vagrant is designed to be the quickest way to a running VM, and I’m impressed.  I have VirtualBox running on my trusty Dell XPS 13  laptop; “Sputnik” (named after the collaboration between Ubuntu and Dell).

Installing Virtualbox and Vagrant on Linux Mint (or any  Debian/Ubuntu derivative) is as easy as typing…

sudo apt-get install virtualbox vagrant

…and thanks to Vagrant and the many virtual machines available for VirtualBox and VMWare platforms, getting your first VM up and running is as simple as typing…

vagrant init centos/7 or vagrant init debian/jessie64

or vagrant init hashicorp/precise64 the latter hashicorp Ubuntu LTS build being the one that Vagrant’s own documentation is based upon.  For my example here, I’m going to start with a RHEL based Centos 7 offering..

This creates a text file called Vagrantfile in the current directory.

Rather than have this file in the root of my home directory, I’ve relocated it to a subdirectory ~/Vagrant/Centos7.  This will allow me to have other Vagrantfiles for other types of VM all stored under ~/Vagrant in their own subdirectory.  Probably not a bad idea as I’ll likely want to spin up a few different VM’s over time.

I’m now ready to “up” my VM…

vagrant up

Since I don’t already have a copy of the image downloaded, it goes off to sort all that for you.  While it’s doing that, there’s nothing stopping me from spinning up an Ubuntu Precise64 VM in another terminal window…

Since I already had the hashicorp/precise64 “Box” image from a previous deployment, it procured this VM in seconds while it continued to download the Centos Box image in the other terminal.

In my other terminal window, Centos 7 has now also been procured, along with some helpful tips should any issues arise around non-installation of VirtualBox Guest Additions on my host  (In my case, I’m running VirtualBox version 5.1.34 at the time of writing).

Flick across to VirtualBox Manager and you can see the two new running VMs based on the downloaded Boxes have been added to the Inventory.  Note: Do not rename them.

To connect to them, simply use the command…

vagrant ssh

Both VM’s allow you to log on instantly over SSH with just this minimalist command run from within the directory containing the Vagrantfile.

So there you have it, a Centos VM and a Ubuntu VM up and running in seconds.  Not hours.  Not Days.  Not Weeks.

It is that simple.  From Zero to Virtualbox, Vagrant and logged on to a running VM of your choice in three commands and dare I say it, about three seconds.

To shut them down, or bring them online again, use the following commands, just make sure you run them from within the correct subdirectory or you could shut the wrong VM down…

vagrant halt

vagrant up

It’s worth checking out the Vagrantfile and the documentation online as you can copy and re-use the Vagrantfile and make useful modifications to it.  Here are some more vagrant box commands to explore.

You can see here that although the vagrant box list command shows all boxes/images downloaded on your host system, if you execute vagrant box outdated, it’ll only check for updated box images for the box image specified in your local Vagrantfile, not all Boxes on the host system at once.

Note that this is not the same thing as performing sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get dist-upgrade (or redhat equivalent yum update command) on the VM built using the Box image (shown below).

As with any new VM or Server, you will probably want to bring all packages up to date using the VM’s own OS package management system.

Vagrant Boxes and Shared Folders

As already established, Vagrant images for VMWare or VirtualBox can be downloaded from the internet using the vagrant command line or as a quick google search will reveal, from here.

The image files (boxes) are stored in .vagrant.d/boxes

Once an image has been downloaded, a “box” has been “created”.  This doesn’t mean a server (VM) has been created.  It just means that your local installation of vagrant has a box, ready to be deployed as a VM.

Before this can be done, it is prudent to create a “Project” for your VM, to put a structure in place to allow for some separation, given that you’re likely to want more than one VM.  This is very easy to do.  Just create some folder e.g. vagrant-project1 in your home directory, or anything you like.

cd into that directory and initialise a new project,

cd ~/vagrant-project1

vagrant init

This will create a file called Vagrantfile in your project folder.  Edit this file to read as follows…

Vagrant.configure(“2”) do |config| = “hashicorp/precise64”
   config.vm.box_version = “1.1.0”
   config.vm.box_url = “”

You don’t have to put all three lines in it, just the first one will do, but why not while you’re in there?

You are not at a point where you have a project, you have a box and you’ve configured your new project to use that box.  Now you can bring up a VM in Virtualbox by running the following command from inside your Project folder,

vagrant up

You can log in with no password, by typing

vagrant ssh

Then create your first user and add him/her to the sudoers file, just as you would with any linux server,

adduser matt && adduser matt sudo

or adduser matt && usermod -aG sudo matt

whatever’s your way of doing it, it doesn’t matter.

Shared folders

You can edit files on your VM locally, you don’t need to ssh to the server in order to access files on it.  Vagrant has mounted your Project folder from inside the VM, so if you’re on the VM and you cd into /vagrant, you’ll be in the same folder as if you’re on your host machine and you cd into ~/vagrant-project1.  Really cool!


Vagrant can also be configured to automatically provision.  For example, the Vagrantfile can be edited as follows to automatically execute a script – in this case, the script installs Apache if it is not already present.

The script referenced in the Vagrantfile above, looks as follows.

Since it was created in my project folder, it is automatically also on the VM since that folder is automatically mounted as mentioned previously.

To effect the changes, you can vagrant reload –provision a running VM to quickly restart it, or if you’ve not yet started the VM, vagrant up will automatically do it.

You can see the VM getting restarted by Vagrant (white text shown above) and Apache getting installed (green text) in the console.

The Apache webserver will not be available from your local web browser, but it can be tested on the VM command line with wget -q0-


Port Forwarding

We can forward the webserver port 80 to our local machine on say, port 4567 and test the webserver accordingly using our own web browser.

We can see that due to the tunnel we’ve created from the VM, by browsing local port 4567, we’re seeing what’s being served on port 80 on our VM.